In the influential article “The Normative Structure of Science” from 1942, Robert Merton formulated four norms (the so-called “CUDOS norms”) which, in Merton’s view, have been decisive for the development of modern science. The standards can be said to have in common that they promote the independence of science. There is a close connection between the CUDOS norms and the linear model of the relationship between science and society.

In 2018, the Swedish philosopher Nick Bostrom published the article “The vulnerable world hypothesis”, which discusses the risk of a technological innovation that is such that it will inevitably lead to the downfall of civilization. The article has received a lot of attention.


Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the linear model and/or one or more of the CUDOS norms, preferably in light of the article “The vulnerable world hypothesis”.


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