A. Explain why it is fallacious to reason Post hoc ergo propter hoc.

B. Evaluate the following inductive argument, by (i) identifying the following features: sample, target population, conclusion, nature of any inductive argument, and then (ii) appraising: variety in sample, apparent representativeness of the sample, and carefulness of causal reasoning, if any.

A survey of 200 women from Sydney between the ages of 25 and 30 was conducted which sought to understand the relationship between educational attainment and fertility rates in Australia. Of those who’s highest level of attainment was the completion of high school, 82% had children. Of those who had completed a bachelor’s degree, 48% had children. Of those who had a Master’s Degree or a Doctorate, only 19% had children. Clearly, education is a causing fertility to decline at alarming rates in Australia.


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