Of the following passages, (a) identify those that contain arguments based on analogy. (b) Then identify the analogue and the primary subject and evaluate the argument according to the ARG conditions, paying particular attention to relevant similarities and relevant differences.

Note: Not all passages contain arguments. If the passage does not contain any argument, or if it contains an argument that is not based on analogy, simply say so, and proceed no further.

Background: This argument deals with the issue of rights over territory acquired by conquest. It was formulated by philosopher John Locke.

That the aggressor, who puts himself into the state of war with another, and unjustly invades another man’s right, can, by such an unjust war, never come to have a right over the conquered, will be easily agreed by all men, who will not think that robbers and pirates have a right of empire over whomsoever they have force enough to master, or that men are bound by promises which unlawful force extorts from them. Should a robber break into my house, and, with a dagger at my throat, make me seal a deed to convey my estate to him, would this give him any title? Just such a title by his sword has an unjust conqueror who forces me into submission.

(John Locke, “Of Civil Government,” cited in Stephen F. Barker, Elements of Logic)

(Hint: In the last sentence Locke is saying that an unjust conqueror has a title that is similar to that of a robber who forces someone, at dagger-point, to hand over his estate.)


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