Econotrawl Consulting advises customers on shipping and logistics issues. Customer needs are beginning to shift, as they are more often in need of increasingly complex logistics plans in shorter time frames. Management realizes the necessity to make significant changes to maintain its loyal customer base and remain competitive. To revitalize the company, management created flowcharts of all the main processes and then held brainstorming sessions to determine how these processes could be streamlined. After extensive consultation, staff members were rearranged into cross-functional groups to create more nimble and flexible teams. What model(s) does this approach represent?
a) Business process management (BPM) but not business process re-engineering (BPR)
b) BPR but not BPM
c) BPM and BPR
d) Neither BPM nor BPR