Make poster about the different theories of the classical view on human nature. The different concepts of every philosopher must appear. This poster can be done digitally.

1. Thales- His argument finds truth in the somatic level of human nature since it is a scientific knowledge that the human brain contains 80% water and the human body 70%.

2. Anaximenes- contends that air is the world-stuff. To this philosopher, air undergoes two processes, namely: condensation and rarefaction. The former is the source of cold; while the latter of heat. In the light of understanding man as body and soul, its rarefied air.

3. Heraclitus- this philosopher maintains that everything is in constant change. “You can’t step twice in the same river”. In his consciousness of change, he believes that fire makes the world-stuff. Evidently, 37°C temperature of the somantic level of human nature us a conviction that man is grounded in the world.

4. Anaximander- posits that man is being that has evolved from animals of another species. He applies evolution to the gradual mutation of life from simple to complex until it reaches human life. Anaximander, indeed, can be called the first evolutionist though his evolutionary theory being crude and incomplete.

5. Pythagoras – Pythagoras’ view of man resembles those of later thinkers like Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, the Stoics, and the Epicureans down to the contemporary thoughts as it will be seen later. Depicted in the Pythagorean view is that soul is immortal, divine, and is subjected to metempsychosis.

6. Protagoras- “man is the measure of all things, of all things that are that they are, and of things that are not that they are not”. As the measure of everything, man for Protagoras is the ultimate criterion of truth.

7. Socrates- the greatest philosopher in the western civilization, maintains that man is a being who thinks and wills. He gives more value to the human soul rather than the body. Human soul should be nurtured properly through its acquisition of knowledge, wisdom, and virtue. Man should discover truth, truth about good life, for it knowing the good life that man can act correctly. Man’s attitude towards life therefore should be oriented towards knowledge. Knowledge is literally taken by Socrates as the ultimate criterion of action.

8. Plato- The nature of man is seen in the metaphysical dichotomy between body and soul.  The body is material; it cannot live and move apart from the soul; it is mutable and destructible. On the contrary, the soul is immaterial; it can exist apart from the body; it is immutable and indestructible. The soul is a substance because it exists and can exist independently of the body; nevertheless, it is temporarily incarcerated in the body.


Three Parts of Soul:

9. Aristotle- known as the famous student of Plato and tutor of Alexander the Great. Man is a rational animal is his famous dictum. To understand Aristotle’s concept of human nature one must look unto one of his most important works, “De Anima” literally means on the soul. De Anima is considered as the first professional textbook in psychology. According to Aristotle’s De Anima, “the soul is the animating principle which enables living being to move on their own, and perform activities such growth, nutrition, and reproduction. Body and soul are in state of unity. In this unity, soul acts as the perfect or full realization of the body while the body is a material entity which has a potentially for life. The body has no life, it can only possess life when it is united with the soul. He speaks of a man as a single essence composed of body and soul.


1. St. Augustine- Medieval Philosophy was started by Augustine.

2. St. Thomas Aquinas- Summa Theologica and Summa Contra Gentiles are the monumental works of Aquinas. He understands man as a whole.

1. Rene Descartes- His view of man is founded on his idea of substance. By substance he means anything that exists independently of other other’s existence. Descartes is saying that substance exists by itself. He draws the distinction between God as the infinite substance and man as the finite substance Descartes calls thinking substance Res Cogitans and extended substance Res Extensa.

1. Karl Marx- Marx’s views of human nature lies at his ideas of labor and society. For Marx the nature of man is equivalent to labor my means of his subsistence. Man becomes man only in the context of labor; hence man is intertwined with practical activity.


We have an Answer from Expert
Buy this answer $20 Place Order